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    1. 奧托·迪克斯2617310,113267328853545988即物主義藝術家奧托·迪克斯(Otto Dix)專題網站http://img05.img.mei-shu.net/Uploads/sjmh/otto-dix/otto-dix_rfy3lt2a22u.jpg

      奧托·迪克斯(Otto Dix)

      奧托·迪克斯(Otto Dix)

      藝術家: 奧托·迪克斯

      生于: 1891年12月02日;德國Gera

      卒于: 1969年7月25日;德國Singen

      國籍: 德國

      流派: 即物主義

      領域: 繪畫,版畫

      受影響: Dada

      影響: 盧西安·弗洛伊德

      朋友: 喬治·格羅茨

      機構: 德累斯頓美術學院,德國德累斯頓,

       

      奧托·迪克斯是二十世紀德國杰出的藝術家。他在新客觀主義運動中居于主導地位,從浪漫主義和表現主義的思想轉向更為酸性和非情感性的觀點,以反映戰時德國社會的殘酷現實。狄克斯雖然是反表現主義運動的代表,但他在繪畫和蝕刻作品中加入了許多風格,包括表現主義。他的作品也受到達達主義、立體主義和未來主義的影響,塑造了藝術家的諷刺和野蠻風格。狄克斯的故事始于家鄉杰拉(1906),在那里,他的藝術和手工藝學徒生涯始于他的老師卡爾·塞夫,他使奧托的第一幅風景栩栩如生。在完成學徒學習后不久,他申請了德累斯頓工藝美術學院,因為工業工藝品受到戰前社會的極大重視,而損害了美術。狄克斯遠景的一個重要部分是在第一次世界大戰中形成的,當時這位藝術家自愿參加,并在戰壕中贏得了榮譽。他寄了一些明信片來記錄戰爭年代,這些明信片描繪了可怕的戰斗場面,轟炸過的土地,以及被炮彈擊中的同志。

      正如這位藝術家所描述的,他是一個現實主義者,他急需親身體驗一切,然后才能改變或傳達任何我。他的繪畫中的圣潔。他對戰壕的創傷采取了一種出人意料的超然的態度,在他的繪畫作品中,如1920年的《畫皮匠》(The Skat Players(1920),以及后來的蝕刻集《畫皮》(Der Krieg(1924)。盡管這位藝術家在第一次世界大戰中處于第一線,但他在恐怖和破壞中找到了美,甚至在別人只看到戰爭恐怖的地方帶來了興奮。狄克斯被任命為怪誕的贊助人,但他欣然接受,并繼續揭露魏瑪共和國的不道德和缺乏道德。

      這位藝術家希望描繪戰后生活的衰落,因為德國資產階級正掙扎于高通貨膨脹、失業和可怕的絕望之中。戰爭殘廢者和殘廢的老兵。藝術家在他那個年代的作品中經常提到的主題是當時的“美女”,常常是裸體的,她們的缺點被夸大到漫畫的程度(布魯塞爾鏡廳記憶>/i">,1920),士兵在戰爭中被肢解(布拉格街Dontrien附近的火山口>,1924)以及魏瑪社會的墮落(Metropolis,1927-1928)。隨著納粹掌權的黑暗日子越來越近,迪克斯從20世紀20年代開始聲名狼藉,他的作品被剝奪了價值,并受到政權的審查。他辭去了德累斯頓美術學院大學教授的職務,他的作品被列入“恣意藝術”展覽,展出了所有不符合納粹標準的藝術品。他的特色風格。他更多地關注景觀,以符合元首和39定律的要求。這位藝術家在戰爭結束后被委派再次作戰,后來被法國人囚禁。奧托回到了藝術界受政治束縛的雙面德國,他在東方的職業關系和他在西方的家之間被撕裂了。當東德轉向以勞動為主題的社會主義藝術時,西德藝術世界轉向了美國以及抽象表現主義等新的藝術運動。在一個不再適合他的世界里,狄克斯努力推銷他的藝術,因為他現實主義風格的尖銳、扭曲的邊緣變得直白。

      奧托·狄克斯被認為是德國新客觀主義運動的關鍵人物,他勇于描繪兩場殘酷戰爭的未經審查的版本。他以諷刺、荒誕的人物和題材通過自己的藝術作品直接表述了一個荒涼、墮落的社會。

       

      Artist :Otto Dix

      Additional Name :Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix

      Born : Gera, Germany

      Died : Singen, Germany

      Nationality :German

      Art Movement :New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit)

      Field :painting,printmaking

      Influenced by :artists-by-art-movement/dada

      Influenced on :lucian-freud

      Friends and Co-workers :george-grosz

      Art institution :Dresden Academy of Fine Arts, Dresden, Germany

      Otto Dix was a remarkable artist of the 20th century Germany. He occupied a lead position in the New Objectivity movement, turning away from the ideas of Romanticism and Expressionism toward a more acidic and non-sentimental perspective to reflect the harsh realities of the interwar German society. Though being a representative of the anti-expressionist movement, Dix incorporated numerous styles into his paintings and etchings, including Expressionism. His works were also influenced by Dadaism, Cubism and Futurism, all of which shaped the artist’s satirical and savage style.

      Dix’s story started in his hometown of Gera (1906), where his arts and crafts apprenticeship began with his teacher, Carl Senff, giving life to Otto’s first landscapes. Shortly after finishing his apprentice studies, he applied to Dresden’s Academy for crafts and arts, as industrial crafts were greatly valued by the society of the pre-war era to the detriment of the fine arts. An important part of Dix’s vision was shaped in the First World War, as the artist volunteered to take part and actually earned distinctions fighting in the trenches. He documented the years of war by sending postcards which depicted the macabre fighting scenes, bombarded lands, and shell-shocked comrades.

      As the artist described himself, he was a realist, and had an acute need to experience everything first hand, before he could transpose or convey any message within his paintings. He took a surprisingly detached approach to the trauma of the trenches, depicted thoroughly in his paintings such as The Skat Players (1920), but also subsequently in the etching collection titled Der Krieg (1924). Even though the artist was in the first line of fire in the World War I, he managed to find beauty in terror and destruction, and even to bring excitement where others would only see horrors of war. Dix was named a patron of the grotesque, but he embraced it and continued to expose the immorality and lack of ethics of the Weimar Republic.

      The artist wished to portray the decay of the post-war life, as German bourgeoisie struggled through high inflation, unemployment, and the macabre display of war cripples and mutilated veterans. Frequent themes that the artist covered in his work, in his time, are the “fair ladies” of the time, often depicted nude, and their defects exaggerated to the point of caricature (Memory of the Halls of Mirrors in Brussels, 1920), soldiers mutilated in the war (Prague Street, 1920) or the horrific aftermaths of the battlefields (Crater field near Dontrien, 1924) and also depravity of the Weimar society (Metropolis, 1927-1928). As the dark days of the Nazis coming to power grew closer, Dix’s notoriety from the 1920’s fell apart, and his artworks were stripped of value and censored by the regime. He was removed from his position of university professor at Dresden Academy of Fine Arts, and his work was included in the Entartete Kunst (degenerate art) show, where all artworks that were not within the lines of the Nazi standards were displayed.

      During the World War II, Dix had to tone down his characteristic style. He concentrated more on landscapes, to fit the requirements of the Fuhrer&#39;s laws. The artist was commissioned to fight again when the war was almost over, and was later imprisoned by the French. Coming home to a two-sided Germany, where the art world was bound by politics, Otto was torn between his professional relations in the East, and his home in the West. While Eastern Germany turned to the socialist aspect of art, focused on the labor theme, the Western Germany art world shifted toward the United States and new art movements, such as Abstract Expressionism. In a world where he did not fit anymore, Dix struggled to sell his art, as a sharp, distorted edge of his realistic style became blunt.

      Otto Dix is regarded as a pivotal figure for the New Objectivity movement in Germany, who had the courage to portray the uncensored versions of two harsh wars and a bleak, depraved society in between, using his satirical and grotesque characters and themes to make a direct statement through his artwork.

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      奧托·迪克斯

      奧托·迪克斯

      Otto Dix(1891-1969)
      即物主義藝術家奧托·迪克斯(Otto Dix)專題網站

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