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    1. 愛德華·霍普261241032673314166478388新現實主義(美國現實主義)藝術家愛德華·霍珀(Edward Hopper)專題網站http://img05.img.mei-shu.net/Uploads/sjmh/edward-hopper/edward-hopper_rl5errncryk.jpg

      愛德華·霍珀(Edward Hopper)

      愛德華·霍珀(Edward Hopper)

      藝術家: 愛德華·霍珀

      生于: 1882年7月22日;恩亞克,紐約,美國

      卒于: 1967年5月15日;紐約市,美國

      國籍: 美國

      流派: 新現實主義(美國現實主義)

      領域: 繪畫

      受影響: Robert Henri,William Merritt Chase,愛德華·馬奈,埃德加·德加,施爾德·哈森,Impressionism

      影響: 威廉·德·庫寧,Mark Rothko,吉姆·狄恩,George Segal,Banksy,Edward Ruscha

      老師: Robert Henri,William Merritt Chase

      朋友: George Bellows,羅克韋爾·肯特

      機構: 帕森斯設計學院(蔡斯學校,紐約藝術學院),紐約,NY,美國

       

      沒有其他藝術家能像愛德華·霍普一樣捕捉到現代城市的孤獨?!翱盏厮囆g家”提供了一個在大蕭條時期美國人生活的提醒。他的暗示性意象與田納西·威廉姆斯、西奧多·德萊塞、羅伯特·弗羅斯特、杰羅姆·塞林格的書以及喬治·德·奇里科和保羅·德爾沃的畫作分享了個人孤獨的心情?;翮攴浅G擅畹孛枥L了時代的精神,以人物的姿態,在他們周圍廣闊的空曠空間中,也以他獨特的調色板表現出來。

      愛德華·霍珀出生于紐約州尼亞克市的一個中產階級家庭,那里是當時充滿活力的交通和工業中心。10歲的時候,男孩開始認真地對待自己的藝術抱負,當他開始簽署和約會他的畫時?;翮旰?9歲的父母鼓勵他學習商業插圖而不是美術。因此,他花了一年在紐約畫廊學院,然后轉移到更認真的紐約藝術學院(現在的帕森斯設計學院)來實現他的夢想。他的老師包括美國印象派畫家威廉·梅里特·蔡斯(創辦了這所學校)和阿什干派畫家羅伯特·亨利(Robert Henri)?;翮暝趯W校的同學包括喬治·貝洛斯和洛克韋爾·肯特。

      1905年,霍珀開始在紐約一家廣告公司做插畫工作。他從來沒有真正喜歡描繪和渴望自由的繪畫從他的想象力。不幸的是,成功來得很慢,他被迫以插畫家的身份生活了將近20年,直到他的繪畫生涯開始起步。

      Hopper在1906年至1910年間三次去歐洲,在巴黎享受了兩次延長的停留。在那里,他創造了美麗的無人居住的風景,剝奪了旅游景點和景點,包括巴黎階梯(1906)、Bistro(1909)、巴黎里爾街48號樓梯(1906)、新橋(1909)。印象派畫家的影響使他走上街頭,畫出“i”和“en plein air”或“i”,正如霍珀所描述的,“從事實出發”。他特別被“多納德·馬奈”和“埃德加·德加·德加·德加”在他們描繪現代城市時不同尋常的構圖安排所吸引。生活。1910年,霍珀最后一次出國旅行回來,他永久地搬到了紐約市,1913年,他定居在一所房子里,那將是他余生的家和工作室。同年,他在紐約軍械庫展出了他的第一幅畫《<航海> < I > >(1911),花了250美元。雖然他從未停止繪畫,但在11年后他又賣出了一幅藝術品。在1915,他開始了版畫,在接下來的十年里生產了大約70個蝕刻和干燥點。像他后來會出名的繪畫一樣,霍珀和39號的刻畫體現了一種疏離感和憂郁感。他最著名的蝕刻作品之一,夜影(1921)以鳥瞰、光影的戲劇性運用、神秘的氣氛為特色,對許多20世紀40年代的黑色電影都有啟發作用。多年來一直認為它們是他藝術發展的重要組成部分。1924年,在41歲的時候,霍珀嫁給了約瑟芬(喬)尼維森,他多年前在羅伯特·亨利的一個藝術學生時代認識了他。從那時起,她成為了他的主要模式和最熱心的支持者。同年,他在紐約的弗蘭克·K·雷恩畫廊舉辦了一次水彩畫獨奏會。演出賣完了,雷恩畫廊繼續代表他度過余生。這一成功使霍珀最終放棄了插圖。在接下來的幾年里,Hopper&#39的繪畫風格逐漸成熟,他的標志性肖像畫從公共或私人室內的孤立人物,到浸透陽光的建筑,寂靜的街道,還有燈塔的海岸景色。1930年,鐵路之家(1925)成為新近成立的現代藝術博物館永久收藏的第一幅畫。1930年代早期,霍珀確實獲得了巨大的成功,向各大博物館出售了藝術品,1933年,現代藝術博物館舉辦了一次回顧展。盡管霍珀和喬在商業上取得了成功,但他們過著儉樸的生活,只允許自己沉迷于看戲和看電影。LMS?;翮晏貏e喜歡看電影,他第一次有記錄的訪問是在1909巴黎。在戰爭年代,霍珀繼續創作著——那時他正在創作他最著名的畫《夜鷹》(《i》)(《夜鷹》)(《i》)(《i》)。盡管抽象表現主義、波普藝術和極簡主義已經登上紐約藝術舞臺,但在20世紀50年代和60年代初,霍珀仍繼續受到人們的贊譽和成功。他受試者的普遍吸引力繼續吸引著觀眾。<>霍珀不是一個多產的畫家。他經常發現很難確定一個繪畫主題,然后通過大量的研究花了大量的時間弄清楚作品的細節。到他生命結束時,他平均每年只吃兩次油。Hopper啟發了無數畫家、攝影師、電影制片人、布景設計師、舞蹈家、作家和音樂家,而術語“hopperesque&”現在被廣泛地用于暗示讓人聯想到Hopper&39;的情緒和主題的圖像。在視覺藝術方面,Hopper&#39;的影響力已經觸動了包括Mark Rothko、George Se.、Banksy、Ed Ruscha和Tony Oursler在內的眾多媒體的藝術家。他還激發了包括羅伯特·亞當斯、黛安·阿布斯、哈利·卡拉漢、威廉·艾格斯頓、沃克·埃文斯、羅伯特·弗蘭克、李·弗里德蘭德和斯蒂芬·肖爾在內的整個攝影學院的靈感。漏斗對電影沒有什么影響。一代又一代的電影制作人從Hopper&#39的戲劇觀點、燈光和總體情緒中得到靈感,其中包括Sam Mendes、David Lynch、Robert Siodmak、Orson Welles、Wim Wenders和Billy Wilder。他的繪畫《鐵道之家》.(1925)激發了阿爾弗雷德·希區柯克(Alfred Hitchcock&)在《i》>Psycho(1960)中的靈感,也激發了泰倫斯·馬利克(Terrence Malick&)在《天堂的日子(1978)中的靈感。湯姆·威茨(Tom Waits)為餐桌上的《夜鷹》專輯取名《i》;麥當娜(Madonna)則以油畫《i》、《女孩秀》、《i》>(1941)命名了一次巡回演唱會。喬伊斯·卡羅爾·奧茨在她的詩中直接提到了漏斗,< i >愛德華·霍普和39;夜鷹1942 < /i >。許多其他人用漏斗畫作為起點創作了完整的故事或詩歌集。

       

      Artist :Edward Hopper

      Additional Name :Edward Hopper

      Born : Nyack, New York, United States

      Died : New York City, United States

      Nationality :American

      Art Movement :New Realism (American Realism)

      Influenced by :robert-henri,william-merritt-chase,edouard-manet,edgar-degas,childe-hassam,artists-by-art-movement/impressionism

      Influenced on :willem-de-kooning,mark-rothko,jim-dine,george-segal,banksy,edward-ruscha

      Teachers :robert-henri,william-merritt-chase

      Friends and Co-workers :george-bellows,rockwell-kent

      Art institution :Parsons School of Design (Chase School, New York School of Art), New York City, NY, US

      No other artist managed to capture the solitude within the modern city like Edward Hopper. The ‘artist of empty spaces’ offers a remindful look at life of Americans during Great Depression. His suggestive imagery shares the mood of individual’s isolation with books of Tennessee Williams, Theodore Dreiser, Robert Frost, Jerome Salinger, as well as with canvasses of Giorgio De Chirico and Paul Delvaux. Hopper depicted the spirit of the time very subtly, showing it in the poses of characters, in the vast empty spaces around them, and also in his unique color palette.

      Edward Hopper was born into a middle class family in Nyack, NY, a vibrant hub of transport and industry at the time. The boy was already serious about his artistic ambitions in the age of 10, when he started to sign and date his drawings. Hopper&#39;s parents encouraged him to study commercial illustration instead of fine art. Accordingly, he spent a year at the New York School of Illustration before transferring to the more serious New York School of Art (now Parsons School of Design) to realize his dream. His teachers there included the American Impressionist William Merritt Chase (who founded the school) and Robert Henri, a leading figure of the Ashcan school, whose proponents advocated depicting the grittier side of urban life. Hopper&#39;s classmates at the school included George Bellows and Rockwell Kent.

      In 1905, Hopper began working as an illustrator for a New York City advertising agency. He never really liked illustrating and longed for the freedom to paint from his imagination. Unfortunately, success was slow in coming and he was forced to earn his living as an illustrator for nearly 20 more years until his painting career took off.

      Hopper travelled to Europe three times between 1906 and 1910, enjoying two extended stays in Paris. There he created beautiful uninhabited landscapes, deprived of tourist sights and attractions, including Steps in Paris (1906), Bistro (1909), Stairway at 48 rue de Lille Paris (1906), The new bridge (1909). The influence of the Impressionists led him to the streets to draw and paint en plein air, or, as Hopper described it, ‘from the fact.’ He was especially attracted to &#201;douard Manet and Edgar Degas&#39;s unusual compositional arrangements in their depictions of modern urban life.

      After returning from his final trip abroad in 1910, Hopper moved permanently to New York City and, in 1913, settled in a house that would be his home and studio for the rest of his life. That same year he sold his first painting, Sailing (1911), for $250 at the Armory show in New York. Though he never stopped painting, it would be 11 years before he sold another artwork. In 1915, he took up printmaking, producing some 70 etchings and dry points over the next decade. Like the paintings for which he would later become renowned, Hopper&#39;s etchings embody a sense alienation and melancholy. One of his better known etchings, Night Shadows (1921) features the birds&#39;-eye viewpoint, the dramatic use of light and shadow, and the air of mystery which would serve as inspiration for many film noir movies of the 1940s. Hopper continued to receive great acclaim for his etchings over the years and considered them an essential part of his artistic development.

      In 1924, at age of 41, Hopper married Josephine (Jo) Nivison, whom he had met years earlier as an art student of Robert Henri. From that time on she became his primary model and most ardent supporter. In that same year he had a solo exhibition of watercolors at the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery in New York. The show sold out and the Rehn Gallery continued to represent him for the rest of his life. This success enabled Hopper to finally give up illustrating. Over the next several years, Hopper&#39;s painting style matured and his signature iconography emerged - from isolated figures in public or private interiors, to sun-soaked architecture, silent streets, and coastal scenes with lighthouses. In 1930, House by the Railroad (1925) became the first painting accessioned to the permanent collection of the newly founded Museum of Modern Art. The early 1930s were, indeed, a period of great success for Hopper, with sales to major museums and in 1933, a retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art.

      Despite his commercial success, Hopper and Jo lived a frugal lifestyle, only allowing themselves the indulgence of attending theater and films. Hopper particularly loved going to movies - his first documented visit to one was in Paris in 1909. Hopper continued to be productive during the war years – at that time he worked on his most well known painting, Nighthawks (1942). Through the 1950s and early 1960s, Hopper continued to see acclaim and success, despite the arrival of Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, and Minimalism to the New York art scene. The universal appeal of his subjects continued to find an avid audience.

      Hopper was not a prolific painter. He often found it hard to settle on a subject to paint and then spent a great deal of time working out the details of the composition through numerous studies. By the end of his life he averaged just two oils a year. Hopper has inspired countless painters, photographers, filmmakers, set designers, dancers, writers, and musicians and the term &#39;hopperesque&#39; is now widely used to connote images reminiscent of Hopper&#39;s moods and subjects. In the visual arts, Hopper&#39;s influence has touched artists in a range of media including Mark Rothko, George Segal, Banksy, Ed Ruscha, and Tony Oursler. He also inspired a whole school of photographers including Robert Adams, Diane Arbus, Harry Callahan, William Eggleston, Walker Evans, Robert Frank, Lee Friedlander, and Stephen Shore. Hopper has had no less of an impact on cinema. Generations of filmmakers have drawn inspiration from Hopper&#39;s dramatic viewpoints, lighting, and overall moods, among them, Sam Mendes, David Lynch, Robert Siodmak, Orson Welles, Wim Wenders, and Billy Wilder. His painting, House by the Railroad (1925) inspired Alfred Hitchcock&#39;s house in Psycho (1960) as well as that in Terrence Malick&#39;s Days of Heaven (1978).

      Hopper&#39;s open-ended narratives have also appealed to writers and musicians. Tom Waits titled an album Nighthawks at the Diner and Madonna named a concert tour after the painting Girlie Show (1941). Joyce Carol Oates refers directly to Hopper in her poem, Edward Hopper&#39;s Nighthawks 1942. Many others have created whole collections of stories or poems using Hopper paintings as starting points.

      18821967Edward Hopper174H
      愛德華·霍普

      愛德華·霍普

      Edward Hopper(1882-1967)
      新現實主義(美國現實主義)藝術家愛德華·霍珀(Edward Hopper)專題網站

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